Tips and Insights to Healthy Living with Essential Oils
- Aromatherapy in Ancient Egypt and China1
- The Role of Aromatherapy and Essential Oils in the Middle Ages2
- The Fortunate Lab Accident That Led to Essential Oil Treatment of Battlefield Injuries in World War I France4
- The Oldest Aromatherapy “Still” Ever Found?5
- The History of Aromatherapy in The Western World6
- The Benefits of Essential Oils for Relieving Stress and Anxiety9
- The Aromatherapy Benefits for the Pregnant Mom-to-Be10
- The Memory Boosting Benefit of Essential Oils 12
- Boosting Your Hair Health with Essential Oils 14
- Essential Oils for Better Skin15
- Why Clean with Essential Oils 17
- Best Essential Oils for Green Cleaning18
- 6 Ways to Clean With Essential Oils18
- Essential Oil Recipes19
- Essential Oils Cleaning Tips20
- Aromatherapy Tips for Beginners 22
- How to Use Essential Oils in Aromatherapy23
- Tips on Storing Essential Oils23
- How to Improve Well-Being with Aromatherapy24
- 6 Aromatherapy Travel Tips
The ancient Egyptians were well known for their belief of an afterlife. Aromatherapy helped them practice this idea. You are probably aware of the Egyptian belief in mummification. They were certain that if a person’s body was kept intact, the spirit would be retained inside, and both spirit and body would awaken in the afterlife to enjoy a second life not ruled by earthly confines. While Egyptians long held a belief that there was some type of existence past the physical here on earth, it wasn’t until an odd happenstance of luck played right into the hands of their beliefs. Around 2,700 BC, air free of humidity coupled with driving, dry sand, along with the fact that Egypt has little to no rainfall, to accidentally preserve some dead Egyptian bodies. This led 4th and 5th dynasty leaders to begin an intentional mummification process. They believed nature had showed them how they could send their pharaohs and other important, wealthy Egyptians to the afterworld, with body intact. Myrrh and other essential oils still used today played an important part of the mummification process. This included Lemongrass, Frankincense, Juniper and Cardamom. At the same time, more than 4,000 miles away in China, practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) were using Sandalwood essential oil to treat conditions like cholera. Clove, Eucalyptus and Lavender essential oils were, and still are, a big part of TCM. Natural medicine practitioners in China were employing the healing powers of essential oils, while Egyptians believed they had mystical powers of reincarnation.
Aromatherapy had been in wide practice for centuries before a Persian physician named Avicenna discovered how to distill the essence of plants. Before then, plants were usually mashed or crushed to get their oil, a very inefficient method. The distillation process Avicenna discovered is still used these days to get essential oils out of plants, roots, leaves and other natural plant components. A philosopher as well as a doctor, Avicenna recorded detailed and specific processes for removing the essence from different plants, and then used them for healing and spiritual practices. The Muslim physician is regarded as the most influential of all the philosophers and scientists during the Middle Ages in the Islamic world. Aside from giving us the distillation process we use today for creating essential oils for use in aromatherapy, Avicenna understood the powerful healing combination of massage and natural, plant-based oils. He wrote several texts on what oils could be used to deliver what specific health benefits, as well as massage techniques. During the Middle Ages in Europe, many knights returning home from the Crusades had been influenced by Avicenna’s followers. They brought home tales of amazing healing powers from natural oils. Plants and herbs began to be used to treat a number of mental and physical health problems. An essential oil which can be traced to biblical times, Frankincense was combined with Benzoin to make a balm called Friar’s Balsam, which could treat a number of both skin and respiratory system issues. As the Middle Ages progressed across Europe, the use of essential oils and herbal remedies for medicine, cleaning and spiritual enhancement became widespread.
3-The Fortunate Lab Accident That Led to Essential Oil Treatment of Battlefield Injuries in World War I France
Lavender is known as one of the most versatile essential oils, and for good reason. It can be used for cleaning and mental health, to treat burns, scrapes and physical injuries, and can heal internal physiological processes. In the aromatherapist’s tool kit, there is always some Lavender essential oil. While this natural healing component had been used for hundreds of years previously on other continents, it was not well known for its restorative and mentally calming powers in France. That would all change when a French scholar, chemist and part-time mad scientist named René Maurice Gattefosse burned his hand during a lab experiment. Probably chiding himself at the time for his mistake, this no doubt turned out to be a positive thing for French soldiers. As many people have done in the history of man when they burn themselves, Gattefosse looked around quickly for some cooling liquid in which to plunge his hand. Immediately at his side he saw a vat of Lavender oil, and began to feel soothed physically and mentally the longer he left his hand immersed in the oil. He then treated the wound as one normally would, but was impressed at how fast it healed. He began to experiment with Lavender essential oil as a healing component for physical injuries, cuts and burns, because it also seemed to calm and soothe the mind simultaneously as the wound. Anxious to spread the word about his discovery, Gattefosse began treating soldiers injured in World War I, and Lavender oil moved from military hospitals to conventional hospitals as an effective natural healer with no negative side-effects. He reported his studies in a scientific journal in 1928, where the term “aromatherapy” was used for the first time.
We know through archaeological research and texts that aromatherapy has been around for a long time. This practice of taking the essence of plants and using it for mind and body wellness in humans is certainly not new. Even so, the discovery of what is probably the oldest aromatherapy distilling machine ever discovered gives us a concrete idea of how long people have been benefiting from essential oils. Distillation is a process used to obtain the oil essence of plants, leaves, bark, trees and other plant-based components and turn it into a usable liquid. Muslim physician and philosopher Avicenna was widely believed to be the father of essential oil distillation in the middle ages. However, an archaeological discovery in 2005 is setting back the use of distillation several centuries. A clay still, for lack of a better term, was discovered by archaeologists in the Republic of Cyprus, east of the Mediterranean Sea. There were several bowls that were found at the same dig site. Those bowls were tested chemically and found to contain distilled Lavender, Rosemary and other essential oil products. The artifacts were found to be about 4,000 years old. Distillation is still used today to create essential oils, because it is such an effective process and it does not damage the strength of the oil which is pulled from the plant. To think that this process was used so long ago in Cyprus tells us that
our ancestors knew very well the healing power of nature, as well as the practice of aromatherapy.
Aromatherapy is the practice of using essential oils taken from nature for topical and aromatic applications, in order to derive specific health benefits. Thought to begin in India and China, working its way westward through Egypt to Europe and finally the Western world, the practice has been around for somewhere between 5,000 and 6,000 years. ike many ancient medicinal practices, the United States and the rest of the Western world were the last to jump on this natural healing bandwagon. It hasn’t been until the late 20th and early 21st centuries that conventional doctors and
other medical professionals have openly begun to preach the effectiveness of this nature-based healing practice. However, the basics of aromatherapy have been used in Western civilizations for centuries. The Greek physician Pedacius Dioscorides wrote a medical text called Material Media around 70 AD. The five-volume tome was printed and distributed in Latin, Arabic and Greek, and for the next 1,200 years it served as the standard medical guide for the Western world. Material Media was a book about herbal medicine that contained many essential oil healing recipes still used today by aromatherapists. Hallmarked by Christopher Columbus’ arrival in North America in 1492, the Spanish Empire expanded throughout Central America, North America, South America and the Caribbean islands. They discovered natives using natural healing oils, herbs and spices, and copied these practices. Their adoption of those natural medicines was largely responsible for the spread of today’s modern aromatherapy practice across Western societies.
Essential oils come from the “essence” of plants. Oil is derived from bark and leaves, roots and stems, and other plant components. That oil is then either applied topically to humans, pets, household items and garden plants for health
advantages, insect avoidance, cleaning and other benefits. With more than 300 essential oils currently catalogued and in common use, the wide-ranging benefits of these natural healers are seemingly endless. Multiple EOs have shown to be very effective for stress-relief. This has a lot to do with how your brain is connected to your sense of smell. When you smell anything, a message is immediately sent to your brain. If you have encountered a specific aroma in the past and you smell it again, your brain pulls out its reference chart to see exactly what your experience was with that aroma. This is how smelling smoke leads to an extreme stress response, followed by a fight or flight signal transmitted by your brain. Accordingly, some smells, like that of Lavender oil, trigger stress-relief. They cause a production of chemicals and
hormones that produce positive feelings and elevate happiness. At the same time, when your brain recognizes that you have inhaled certain anxiety-relieving essential oils, the production of stress-causing hormones like cortisol is lowered. Put simply, your body and mind are hardwired to respond in very specific ways to different scents and aromas. The following oils have been used for centuries, and in some cases thousands of years, for stress and anxiety-relief. lavender oil improves how your nervous system responds, restoring it and promoting feelings of calm and peacefulness. Vetiver essential oil calms your mind and lowers stress levels, and is often used to soothe panic attack sufferers. Ylang Ylang has an uplifting, soothing effect, and Bergamot has been used at least since the Middle Ages to effectively treat depression and boost energy levels.
Essential oils may be applied directly to your skin, as long as they are diluted significantly with some type of carrier oil. Alternately, they can be diffused into the air and inhaled. This is the most common method of use, since an EO diffuser can be filled, turned on and forgotten, yet all the while it is filling the air around you with natural healing power. A diffuser is “set and forget” easy. Essential oils and an aromatherapy practice can benefit any number of health conditions, including pregnancy. The specific benefits essential oils offer pregnant women include the following experiences. Important Note: Consult a licensed aromatherapist before you use any essential oils during pregnancy. There are certain time frames where specific oils should and should not be used, for the best possible pregnancy experience. Peace of Mind, Stress-Relief Pregnancy is stressful, whether you are going to be a first-time mom or you are a veteran mother familiar with the process. The incredible hormonal and chemical shifts that go on in the female body during pregnancy can definitely benefit by the calming, soothing, anxiety-ridding powers of essential oils like Bergamot and Lavender. Respiratory Aid Sometimes pregnant moms feel a little “stuffy” and congested. This is because their immune system is being tested during this important time and it can become a little weak. If you feel congested and experience other respiratory
issues, Eucalyptus oil can help. Treat Varicose Veins, Hemorrhoids and Swollen Ankles Those three conditions are the sign of inflammation which is common during pregnancy for some women. Cypress essential oil is usually prescribed by an aromatherapist after 5 months of pregnancy, and can help treat these inflammation-related problems. Relieve Morning Sickness Morning sickness during pregnancy, which can happen at any time of the day and not just in the a.m., can be treated with an essential oil blend. Sandalwood, Ginger and Lavender combined with coconut oil as a carrier and massaged into the abdomen often helps with morning sickness symptoms.
There are several essential oils used in aromatherapy which can boost your brainpower. You can find yourself retaining information better, recalling memories and never again forgetting aware you left your car keys when you make the following EOs a part of a regular aromatherapy practice. Basil Basil essential oil offers a refreshing, uplifting, sweet scent. In studies, it has been shown to help you concentrate, especially when there are a lot of distractions begging for your attention. It has also been linked to memory improvement when used regularly. Diffusing basil as you study for a big test or learn something new will improve your retention and help you focus. Sage A lot of us use coffee to wake up in the morning. Sage is a healthy and side-effect-free coffee alternative that you don’t have to mix unhealthy cream and sugar with. As caffeine is known to make you alert and mentally sharp for a short period of time, Sage can get you going without the caffeine-crash on the back end of the experience. Add with black pepper oil for an extra boost, and to improve your memory. Rosemary Rosemary essential oil has a sharp, distinct scent. In multiple studies and clinical trials, Rosemary has displayed the incredible ability to help you remember things that haven’t even happened yet! In other words, inhale Rosemary now, and you stand a much better chance remembering the things you do over the next few hours and throughout the day.
Did you know you can actually thicken thin hair, stop dandruff and other dry scalp conditions, and give your hair a healthy shine through the use of essential oils? This happens not only with a topical application of certain oils, but also when those oils are diffused into the atmosphere. By the way, because these are natural oils, they are far safer and in many cases more effective than man-made, chemically-based hair care products which often do more long-term damage than good. One essential oil that is absolutely indispensable because of its well-rounded health-boosting nature is Lavender. A 2016 animal study showed that Lavender oil dramatically improved the number of hair follicles grown on female mice. In other studies, human test subjects have stated that Lavender appeared to grow new hair, as well as make existing hair thicker. Chamomile oil adds a healthy shine to your hair. It does so while simultaneously making your scalp healthier and stronger, which leads to fewer unhealthy-scalp conditions like dandruff. Clary Sage oil fights inflammation of the skin, as
well as oil production. It also is effective for creating hormonal balance and relieving stress, two conditions linked to hair loss in men and women. Rosemary is another EO that is well known in aromatherapy circles for thickening hair and promoting growth. It is believed that the Minoxidil-like hair growing property of Rosemary is why it is so good for preventing baldness, and treating baldness as well.
Your skin and hair health are closely linked. This is because your hair grows from your skin. If your skin is healthy and naturally strong, it stands to reason your hair has a better chance at being healthy as well. Because of this, there are some essential oils which are good for both hair and skin health. Lavender is an essential oil that can truly do it all. It is considered one of the few must-have items in an aromatherapist’s medical bag, because it leads to so many health benefits. As far as the skin is concerned, lavender is as soothing as it is to the mind. A topical application applied to scrapes and cuts helps them heal quickly, and if your skin has been stressed or burned, lavender oil can provide soothing relief. Chamomile is another oil which loves your skin and your hair. Chamomile essential oil has been used for decades to treat cracked skin and rosacea. You can add a few drops to a warm bath for overall skin benefits, and a localized application is
good for treating eczema, acne and any area where your skin has become inflamed or agitated. Clary Sage can keep you mentally sharp and stop hair loss related to mental stress. For your skin, Clary Sage is an amazing antiaging product. It communicates with your mind and body, and actually slows down the effect of aging on your skin. Think of it as an anti-aging oil. A mixture of Clary Sage with some type of carrier oil like coconut oil can be applied to puffy bags under the eyes, and effectively helps problems with both oily and dry skin.
Are you concerned that your cleansers aren’t all that clean? Labels of mainstream home products such as hand soaps, spray cleaners, and toothpastes reveal a number of harmful and toxic ingredients. It comes at no surprise that people
are turning towards all-natural cleaners such as essential oils for their home cleaning care.
Why are essential oils good for cleaning? Aside from their attractive and lovely scents, plant essences are well known for their antimicrobial components. Pure essential oils are incredibly potent, so potent in fact that they can destroy microbes (bacteria, viruses, and fungus)
with their unique compounds.
Oils with various properties and scents can be combined to make a home cleanser personalized for your exact needs.
What constitutes an essential oil?
Not every essential oil is created equal. If you’re thinking about adding essential oils in your homecare routine it’s important to ensure that you are using pure essences, so you get the maximum benefits from the most potent and healthiest plants.
When purchasing your essential oils, keep these tips in mind:
- Purchase organic (if possible)
- Unless otherwise stated, scented or perfume oils are not essential oils.
- Look for 100% pure labels. The only ingredient should be the desired essential oil.
- Avoid preservatives, additives, and synthetic ingredients.
If you’ve ever made your own cleaning products, its likely that you love that you can get that sparkling clean without dangerous chemicals. You also know that homemade cleaners can smell well…pretty “blah”.
Not only do essential oils smell divine, they actually help in elevating your mood and efforts while cleaning. Here are some of the top essential oils you need in your homecare-cleaning regime:
- Lavender – This stress-relieving oil naturally relaxes the nervous system, perfect after a long day at work. It also
helps that this oil is a top antiseptic, bactericidal, antiviral, and fungicidal.
- Lemon – Are you feeling down? This essential oil is not only an antimicrobial, bactericide, and antiseptic, it has
been shown to improve people’s moods when cleaning.
- Peppermint – This revitalizing oil has been shown to enhance work performance and increase alertness, in addition to its
- Sweet Orange – This refreshing, citrus-based oil has earned its place among household cleaners for its antibacterial and antifungal properties, which in turn help to make a great degreaser.
- Tea Tree – Looking for something powerful? This oil is strong on its own, but essential oil combinations often benefit
from its bactericidal, insecticidal, antiseptic, and antifungal properties.
Essential oils offer an all-natural, effective, and safe alternative to harsh chemicals in the home. If you’re committed to better living, read these 6 tips on incorporating essential oils into your cleaning routine.
- Bathrooms, Bedrooms, Kitchens – Some people are hesitant to use essential oils because they don’t think they are powerful enough to tackle tough germs. Wrong! In fact essences such as tea tree, eucalyptus, and oregano have been proven to work against tough viruses like Staphylococcus and Influenza.
- Floors – Essences such as lemon are tough competitors in dissolving marks and dirt on both carpets and hardwood floors.
- Furniture – Essential oils are great for gentle and regular cleaning on antiques, sofas, and even mattresses. Safe on all
surfaces, feel free to spray pure oils anywhere that needs refreshing.
- Outdoors – From pest control to gardening, essential oils can help combat everything from pesky ants to outdoor bubblegum residue.
- Kids Toys – You can never be too cautious when it comes to your child’s toys. Essential oils help combat bacteria, viruses and odor in a safe and non-toxic way.
- On-the-go – Don’t forget about cleaning on-the-go! Essential oils can be used to create portable wipes and disinfectants, great for use on hands, shopping carts, and other surfaces.
Essential oils are a growing popularity for its home uses in aromatherapy, healthy cooking, oral care, home purification, family wellness, and of course natural cleaning.
The powerful “clean” scents that you get from conventional cleaners may have your home feeling disinfected, but often comes from a host of toxic chemicals. Pure essential oils are strong and effective against touch bacteria and viruses. And
how else could you get a cleaner that smells of fresh mountain rain and strawberries?
Our favorite scent combinations:
- Spearmint, lemon, bergamot
- Vanilla, lemon, rosemary
- Lime, lemon, basil
- Lavender, lime
- Eucalyptus, rosemary, lavender
- Tea tree, peppermint, eucalyptus
- Mandarin, sandalwood, geranium
- Lavender, vanilla,
- Peppermint, vanilla
- Orange, clove, cinnamon
How much to add to a recipe?
For a more gentle scent or for those not concentrated on the properties of the oil, add 5 drops of your essential oil to 3 cups of your cleaning solution.
To obtain the cleaning properties of your oil, use between 10 and 20 drops per 3 cups of solution.
In some cases, you may want to use a stronger concentration, for uses such as a poo pourri or linen spray. In these cases 25 to 40 drops is recommended.
You can also feel free to add a few dashes of your essential oil to your sink water, mop water, or even your laundry detergent.
With the consumer rise in green living has come the integration of essential oils in home care cleaning. People around the world have decided that their family deserves better, and we agree!
Essential oils are made by cold pressing or steaming raw plant material. The pure, distilled liquid essence of a plant is great for adding an extra punch to your homemade household cleaners. Additionally, these homemade cleaners can help
fight the blandness of homemade cleaners, leaving behind strong cleaning properties and rich scents.
Popular essential oils and their properties:
- Lemon – antiviral and antibacterial
- Tea Tree – fights germs bacteria and viruses
- Rosemary – antibacterial and antiseptic
- Wild Orange – great against grease
- Lavender – naturally antibacterial
- Eucalyptus – natural germicide
- Peppermint – antibacterial
- Cinnamon – antibacterial and antiseptic
- Pine – common cleaner ingredient
- Thyme – one of the most powerful against germs
How to clean with essential oils:
- Don’t add your essential oils until you’ve poured your cleaning liquid into the spray bottle.
- Naturally, oils and water do not mix well. Before each use, give your product a healthy shake.
- When possible, store your essential cleaning products in a dark glass bottle. Essential oils have been known to
decompose plastics while light can lead to decomposed therapeutic qualities over time.
- Essential oils are safe on every surface.
Aromatherapy is the simple practice of awakening your senses with natural oils. In fact, you’ve probably experienced the benefits of Aromatherapy without even realizing it!
How many times have you walked into the office of your day spa or doctor and noticed a pleasant-smelling aroma filling the room. THAT was aromatherapy. It’s common for offices to use combination of essential oils to help calm and relax
Whether you’re a seasoned aroma-vet or you’d like to introduce essential oils into your life, here are the Do’s and Don’ts of Aromatherapy.
- DO: Study as much as you can on Aromatherapy. It’s easy to get started, but there are health related components to be aware of.
- DON’T: Purchase perfume oils thinking they are the same as essential oils. Although they may smell nice they are not the real deal and do not offer therapeutic benefits.
- DO: Be selective of where you make your essential oil purchases. Oil should always come 100% pure and undiluted.
- DON’T: Purchase from non-reputable or beginner companies at street and craft fairs. Many new companies do not have a reliable method of guaranteeing quality.
- DO: Store your oils in a cool, dark place in a dark tinted glass (cobalt blue or amber).
- DON’T: Ignore the safety information or directions of use.
- DO: Enjoy introducing aromatherapy into your life!
Aromatherapy is the relaxing practice of using essential oils that have been extracted from various plants to enhance physical and psychological well-being. The right blend of oils can even help motivate and de-stress people while stimulating certain brain functions.
Here’s how to you can implement essential oils into your aromatherapy routine:
- Start by adding a few drops of your favorite essential oil(s) into a spray bottle filled with water. Shake well and use as an air freshener.
- Have any candles that seem to have lost their scent? A drop of essential oil will bring it to life while you benefit from the therapeutic properties.
- Some essential oils have benefits of being rubbed directly on the skin. Always read the warnings and instructions before doing so, many oils require a base oil like safflower, olive, or vegetable oil for direct contact.
- Avoid these types of essential oils if you have high blood pressure: thyme, sage, rosemary, rose, ginger, eucalyptus, and cypress.
- Freshen and cleanse smelly shoes by adding oil such as Lemon on a cotton ball and leaving it in your shoes overnight.
- Place a few drops on a cloth and toss it in with your clothes in the dryer. This will also make your entire home smell amazing!
Essential oils used in aromatherapy, as well as other types of health and home wellness, has a shelf life from 1 to 3 years – when stored in a dark colored glass jar or vial. The only exception to this is Citrus oil, which lasts from 6 months to 1
Even though many essential oils stay good for a few years, once they are mixed with carrier oils, the shelf life with be equal to the vegetable oil it is mixed with – if tightly capped and refrigerated. Therefore, it’s a good idea to add an
antioxidant into your mixture to prolong its useful life.
When you first purchase an essential oil it’s a good idea to write the date on the vial. Store in a dry, cool place, out of direct sunlight. Use a separate eyeglass dropper for each of your bottles to prevent cross contamination. This will ensure that they are most effective for Aromatherapy purposes.
Eyedroppers should fit securely, but not tightly. Why? Too tight will cause you to lessen the life of your essential oil.
If you aren’t going to use your oil for a while, replace the dropper with a regular screw on lid.
One of the most satisfying things about Aromatherapy is more than its pleasant smell; it’s the ability to improve your overall well-being and mood. Plant extracts and essential oils are used just for this purpose. What’s not to love?
- Combat a Cold – The best thing for a stuffed up nose is a powerful scent. Symptoms can be soothed with eucalyptus or
peppermint oil. Simply place a drop on tissue and experience bliss!
- Good Night’s Sleep – Use mandarin or lavender essentials in your diffuser before bedtime, or a handful of soaked cotton balls in front of your air vents to help you feel more restful at night.
- Energize Your Day– Rosemary is known for its uplifting capabilities. Try putting this essential oil in a diffuser, or place
a couple drops in water with a tea light underneath.
- Bathing Relaxation – What better way is there to relax after a hectic day than with earthy oils like sandalwood. Put about nine drops in your bath or a drop in your surrounding candles for ultimate relaxation.
- Motivated Inspiration – Planning a get-together? What better way to enhance festive spirits then with citrus a citrus oil
freshener like orange, lemon, and lime?
- Favorite Scents – Wearing your favorite scent on your clothes is a great way to feel revitalized, confident, and
refreshed. It also works to enhance your mood throughout the day.
If you’re planning a tip anytime soon, don’t forget how simple it is to take your essential oils with you on the road, air, or sea! Here we’ve gathered our favorite aromatherapy travel tips to enhance your next trip.
- Hand Sanitizer – Combine 4 drops of rosemary, lavender, tea tree, and ravensara with Aloe Vera gel or jojoba oil in a small container.
- Jet Lag – Are you traveling across multiple time zones? Aromatherapy can help. Chamomiles or lavender can aid in sleep
while eucalyptus or rosemary will help you stay awake.
- Car Diffuser – One of the simplest ways to use essential oils is in your vehicle. Simply add a few drops of rosemary or
peppermint and plug into your vehicle’s cigarette light or power receptacle.
- Sunburnt Relief – Mix a couple drops of lavender with either Aloe Vera or coconut oil for a soothing relief.
- Motion Sickness – If planes, boats, or cars give you motion sickness try peppermint or ginger. Add a couple drops into a
go-anywhere inhaler or a diffuser necklace for relief.
- Pocket Roll-On –
This is one of the easiest ways to take essential oils with you anywhere! Use pre-diluted oil combination safe for skin to roll on your neck, wrists, and pulse points.